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Where can I dig with a metal detector by law
As you know, in August last year the so-called law on metal detectors came into force. This has raised a lot of questions on the part of those citizens for whom the so-called "device search" is a favorite hobby. Let's find out what this law is and where you can dig with a metal detector by law.

The full name of the adopted law is "On amending certain laws of the Russian Federation in terms of the suppression of illegal activities in the field of archaeology" of 23.07.2013, No.245-Fz. According to it:

The state is the owner of ANY finds from the sphere of archaeological heritage, as well as archaeological objects, which are found by citizens on the surface, in the earthen layer and under water.
For the removal of archaeological finds from the site of their location, in case it entailed the destruction of the cultural layer, criminal responsibility is provided. It is important that the cultural layer is a layer under water or in the ground, if it contains traces of human activity, which is more than a hundred years old, according to the legislation.

Further, the law deals with the acquisition, marketing of cultural heritage items.

At first glance, this law finally deprives citizens of the right to dig with a metal detector anywhere. But it's not. In fact, at its core, the law remained unchanged in the sense that the search with a metal detector and unauthorized excavations have been banned since the days of Soviet rule, and remained forbidden. But at the same time there are a number of situations in which these actions are quite legal.

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First, you can search and dig in places where there are no records of old settlements and other traces of human activity over a century. If any archaeological objects are found in such a search, they must be handed over to the state, because, as the law says, the state owns everything found in the ground or under water.

Secondly, let's allow a search with a metal detector on public beaches, because there is no cultural layer there, and the finds, respectively, can not be of historical value and are not archaeological objects.

Thirdly, it is possible to search the fields where tractors plow every year, where there is also no cultural layer.