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Metal detectors are electronic devices for the search and detection of metal objects in the ground, in the sand, in the water, in wells, in walls, etc. These devices are used to search for treasures and gold nuggets, coins and jewelry, household items and military paraphernalia. There are also security-screening metal detectors, as well as instruments for finding pipes and other communications during roadworks or building construction. The most popular among fans of rarities are metal detectors for the search of treasures, which consist of a control unit with an electronic circuit, a magnetic coil, a telescopic rod and an armrest. To give visual information about the find there is a display, and to capture the sound signals - speakers and headphones.

These devices are operated by VLF (Very Low Frequency) or PI (Pulse Induction) technology, which is a different type of electromagnetic signal. The most common were VLF-based metal detectors operating at frequencies of up to 20 kHz. One reel of the search coil emits a signal, and the other - receives, and if a metal object enters the electromagnetic field, the signal is distorted. In the control unit, the data of these distortions are analyzed, after which the metal detector gives information about the type of metal, the depth of its laying, etc. on display or through sound display. Pulse metal detectors (PI technology) are more sensitive and show excellent results in mineralized soil, underwater and in the beach sand, but they have a worse function of discrimination - metal type recognition.

Types of metal detectors

By the way of execution metal detectors are classified as manual (inspection), portable and stationary (arched). Portable metal detectors in their parameters and technical capabilities are divided into amateur and professional.

Amateur. This category includes entry-level metal detectors: children’s, designed for young treasure hunters, and devices with basic characteristics. At the same time, even amateur metal detectors can have a wide functionality and successfully used to search for valuable rarities. Garrett Ace metal detectors are considered to be among the best in this class.

Professional. These devices operate at different frequencies, have many settings, give visual, digital, beeps and are able to recognize non-ferrous and black metals with very high accuracy, even if they are located close to each other. This category includes, in particular, industrial metal detectors for the search for engineering communications.

By application, metal detectors are classified as ground, deep and underwater.

Ground. The largest category used mainly by amateurs. Ground metal detectors are designed to search for metal objects in surface layers of soil (from a few centimeters to 1 m) using one or two frequencies up to 22.5 kHz.

Deep. This class includes metal detectors that detect the presence of large metal objects at a depth of 2-5 meters at frequencies of 6.6 kHz. They are equipped with frame search coils and generate a large electromagnetic field. These are professional metal detectors for experienced treasure hunters, repair crews or special services.

Underwater. Features of these metal detectors is the presence of only sound display and waterproof coil, made of special materials with zero buoyancy and allowing to conduct searches underwater.

Metal detector characteristics

1. Search coils. In the shape of the coils emitting the electromagnetic field, are round and elliptical: round have a slightly greater depth of detection than elliptical, but inferior to them in accuracy of work in pinpoint mode. Smaller coils (up to 6 inches) are more convenient to search for on littered areas, although they have less depth than larger ones. Medium coils typically range in size between 6-10 inches and larger coils are more than 10 inches. As the coil size increases, the accuracy of object detection decreases, but the depth of search and the scope of the area increase.

Modern metal detectors use the following types of coils consisting of a transmitting and receiving loop: Mono, Imaging and DoubleD. The first type of coils (concentric) with the location of one loop in another generate a symmetrical electromagnetic field. It is a more versatile look that is suitable for covering a wide range of metal objects. Imaging coils (used, for example, in Garrett GTI metal detectors) have an additional receiving loop, which reduces the width of the electromagnetic field and simplifies the definition of the target. At DoubleD coils, both loops are mirrored and resemble the shape of the letter “D.” They are less susceptible to mineralized soil and better find non-ferrous metals.

Improvised metal detectors simple and more complex
2. Working frequencies. Metal detectors use one or more frequencies (1.5-100 kHz) to search, and their number can reach up to 30. Accordingly, metal detectors are classified for one - and multifrequency. Low-frequency metal detectors (up to 2.5-6.6 kHz) perfectly recognize items made from copper, silver and other high-conduct metals. Devices with average working frequencies (6-7 kHz) are more versatile, and at high frequencies (from 20 kHz) you can find gold nuggets. The lower the frequency, the greater the depth of detection, but such devices are more difficult to recognize small objects. High frequencies, in turn, are best suited for not heavily mineralized and unlitter areas.

3. The main functions of metal detectors

The rearrangement from the ground. This feature, which eliminates interference from soil mineralization, is configured in fixed, automatic or manual modes. In the first case, it is factory installations, in the second the device itself performs the setting of the detector on the ground, and in the third you can independently determine the degree of soil mineralization and set up a metal detector.

Discrimination. This is the recognition of finds by the type of metal (black, colored), based on its electrical conductivity. You can set up the device so that it does not react to a certain type of find - for example, iron.

Super Tune. The noise threshold setting feature, allowing you to reach maximum depth and increase the sensitivity of the device. It is recommended to use it in The Discrimination mode.

Pinpoint. A useful feature to determine the exact location of a metal object. In this case, the metal detector works in static search mode without determining the type of metal.